Four varieties of bacteria have been found in the bee bread of the larva: Bacillus circulans, B. coagulans, B. firmus, and B. megaterium. Only the Bacillus genus has been found in the samples taken. Together, these four species were able to hydrolyze starch, ferment glucose, convert nitrates to nitrites, and produce dihydroxyacetone from glycerol. This group of bacteria also lowers the pH of the bee bread. These functions serve not only to protect the larva from other bacteria, but they also digest complex molecules which allow the larva to easily absorb nutrients without expending a lot of energy. The bacteria, in turn, receive a supply of food which results in a mutualistic relationship.
Male C. pallida are able detect the pheromones which females release and use them to locate female burrows. When a virgin female is about to emerge from her burrow, she releases a scent that wafts up through the soil and is detected by the antenna of the males. This has led to males developing a very acute olfactory sense. Freshly-killed females have been buried to test whether sound also plays a part in male signaling. In these tests, male bees still dug up the dead females, proving that pheromone signaling is the only pathway. Males have also been observed to dig up other males. This shows that males and virgin females give off similar pheromones. Oddly, males also sometimes dig up other digger bee species. It is currently unknown why this occurs.
DuProprio has reinvented the way people sell and buy properties in Canada. A leader in real estate sales with no middleman, the company has always used digital technology to disrupt its sector. Over the years, more than 260,000 Canadians have used DuProprio’s services to sell their properties with no commissions, and millions of people visit their site each month.
Real estate brokers are subject to the Real Estate Brokerage Act and must comply with various measures to ensure your protection: they must meet the requirements of the Organisme d’autoréglementation du courtage immobilier du Québec (OACIQ), contribute to the Real Estate Indemnity Fund and hold professional liability insurance. They are responsible for the real estate transaction.